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Bitcoin Mining News:

Bitcoin mining is getting more difficult with the passage of time, so now it is taking more money and electricity to mine for the digital currency than ever before.

The rising worth of Ether, another digital currency, and the appreciation of Bitcoin can help to maintain the productivity of Bitcoin mining, in spite of increasing costs and difficulty.

It is becoming more difficult and problematic to mine bitcoins, but miners are not packing up their servers because of this. the number of available bitcoins for mining has decreased from 50 Bitcoin per block. According to a financial technology analytics service “NEXT”, the number of bitcoins available for mining was 12.5 Bitcoin per block when it initially came onto the scene.  According to a Bitcoin countdown site, this number has set to decrease about to 6 Bitcoin on June 19, 2020.

In the starting days of the technology, a few computer systems were able to mine hundreds of coins in about three to four days. Sebastian Quinn-Watson, a consultant with a bitcoin mining firm reveals that is not what the fall looks like today. Sebastian Quinn-Watson said, today, about 1700 bitcoins are generated per day. Basically, we all are fighting for about one coin every 10 minutes.

Quinn-Watson said the rise in the value of Ether is a trend which can help Bitcoin miners.

Ethereum on The Rise:

 

Ether is the most prominent rival of Bitcoin which is controlled by the Ethereum blockchain, Ether has gone high over 2000% since last year. Until the June, the digital currency was on its way to beat Bitcoin as the largest digital currency of the world, by market cap, according to Coindesk, since its market share has pulled back.

According to Sebastian Quinn-Watson, miners could get benefit from the future appreciation in the price of Bitcoin. If the appreciation of Bitcoin was to overtake the rise in the mining cost, then the productivity of the business will remain unaffected.

Business Inside Volatility:

 

To be sure, the price of Bitcoin is high about 250% since last year. But it has experienced recently extreme swings in its price. Some miners have credited this instability to current civil war between crypto-power brokers. This did not bother Sebastian Quinn-Watson, he told that the Business Inside instability or volatility is exciting. He said, we welcome the volatility and look at this as required aftershock of the Cambrian explosion which Blockchain.

Story Credit: businessinsider.com

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The blockchain immutability myth

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Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

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SEC Uncovers A Case Of Fraudulent ICO

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No doubt cryptocurrencies have become notoriously volatile as various governments and financial organisations are imposing restrictions regarding the sale and purchase of fraudulent ico. On the other hand it is also a fact that continuous boom in the cryptocurrency market is the main reason behind the birth of some alarming situations regarding its investment and fundraising options. With an increase in the popularity of Initial coin offering and cryptocurrencies, many top social networking websites have recently banned advertisements related to all sorts of activities related to this specific market. Recently Facebook, Google and Twitter are on the top of the list among the sites which have prohibited ads related to cryptocurrencies. Not only that but the US Securities and Exchange Commission has also issued a strict warning according to which celebrities can no more endorse ICOs without proper announcement. Even a country like India has officially announced that Bitcoin is no more than an illegal tender within its borders.

some massive frauds and illegal activities related to the digital tokens have also become a reason for such restrictions. One of such recent fraudulent activities was reported by the US security exchange commission against two co-founders of a supposed financial services start-up for organizing a deceptive initial coin offering.

Who Was Behind That ICO Fraud?

The names of the two founders are Sohrab Sharma and Robert Farkas who are behind that ICO fraud. They were running of a cryptocurrency firm by the name of Centra Tech which was also authenticated by champion boxer Floyd Mayweather. The US Securities and Exchange Commission charged the founders of Centra Tech for organizing a fraudulent initial coin offering. All that information was made public in a press release dated April 2.

 

Sohrab Sharma and Robert Farkas, were arrested and charged for raising 32 million dollars in an unregistered investment with the help of so called “CTR Token”. Farkas was fully prepared to leave the country, but was arrested moments before he could board his flight.

How Was This ICO Fraud Discovered?

According to the statement issued by US Securities and Exchange Commission, Sohrab Sharma and Robert Farkas offered a number of financial products on behalf of their company Centra Tech which also included a debit card backed by Visa and MasterCard. It was being claimed by Centra Tech that with the help of this debit card users could instantly convert cryptocurrencies into US dollars and other legal tokens. In fact it was all based on a fraud as no such agreement existed between Centra Tech and Visa or Mastercard.

 

Centra Tech was also alleged for creating fictional resumes and biographies in order to promote its fraudulent company. The company also hired celebrities like champion boxer Floyd Mayweather to promote their initial coin offering.

 

According to a warning issued by the US Securities and Exchange Commission in November last year, the ICOs which involved celebrities could be illegal.

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Joint Fintech Venture of Singapore and Japan

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Basically, fintech ventures refer to specific computer programs and use of other related technology in order to support financial services in banking and other sectors. Since the end of the first decade of 21st century, fintech has expanded a lot, now it refers to many technological innovations in the financial sector e.g.; financial literacy education and various forms of crypto-currencies.

SFA and FAJ join Hands for Fintech

According to a joint press release, the Singapore Fintech Association (SFA) and the Fintech Association of Japan (FAJ) have decided to work together in order to bring improvements in fintech development. Both the countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The press release also states that this joint venture will probably raise the financial profile of the Japanese fintech companies as well as expand the business opportunities for Singapore in wider Asia.

Views of Chia Hock Lai about the MOU

Chia Hock Lai, the president of Singapore Fintech Association, said that this partnership will lead to fill the gap between the fintech communities of Japan and Singapore. Natalie Shiori Fleming, Vice Chairperson of the FAJ, also exclaimed his thoughts in this regard. According to him they are looking forward to increase interaction and cooperation level between respective markets of the two countries through a deeper relationship.

Japan’s Financial Services Agency (FSA) has also updated legislative rules and regulations in order to improve cooperation and interaction level between traditional banks and fintech companies. Same is the case with Monetary Association of Singapore (MAS) in case of fintech related innovations.

Reasons to Promote Fintech

An overview of the above details may arouse questions in your mind regarding fintech. First of all, what is the reason behind so much dependability and concentration on fintech?

Answer to this question in a single phrase is:

The financial industry is more than ever focused on technological innovation than it was at any other time.

All the major countries are become fintech dependent with the passage of time. At the moment, North America is leading fintech startups while Asia is following. A bird’s eye view of some of the most active areas of fintech innovation are as follows:

  • Digital cash in the form of cryptocurrency.
  • Blockchain technology, to maintain records with no central ledger.
  • Computer based smart contracts.
  • Cybersecurity and fintech are interlocked.

According to the modern day financial experts, fintech will have the same impact on future financial affairs as was of mobile phone and social media in case of communication era.

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Ethereum Hits $1,000  For The First Time – Jumps Closer To $100 Billion Market Cap

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Ethereum hit another milestone on Thursday after its price went above $1,000, the highest it has ever gone in the history of world’s third largest cryptocurrency.

Just four days into the new year and January has already been a remarkable month for the crypto market. During this brief period, the combined value of altcoin market tops has swelled by more than $140 billion, and altcoins now represent more than two-third of the crypto market cap. Recently, Ripple became the first altcoin to accomplish a $100 billion market cap, and Ethereum now seems ready to add its name to this prestigious list.

Like most digital forms of money, Ethereum has been on an extended rally since the start of December, when it was estimated at $428. Through the span of the month, the Ethereum value ascended by 76 percent and it finished the year at $752.

Despite dropping behind Ripple in its race to capturing the second spot for the most valuable crypto, Ethereum expanded its rally into 2018, getting through both $800 and $900 earlier in the week. This Thursday, Ethereum cost accomplished a notable high, ripping past the $1,000 for the first time in its history.

Ethereum now has a market cap of $98.1 billion, bringing it a yard closer to becoming the third digital money to accomplish a $100 billion market cap.

Despite the fact that Ethereum has yet to hit $1,000 on most Western exchanges, South Korean merchants have taken the cost of ether up to $1,322, enabling its worldwide average to stretch out into the four-digit region. Currently, a majority of ETH exchanging is focused on Binance, which represents more than 20 percent of daily ETH volume.

Traders Are Optimistic About Casper Alpha Release:

Despite the fact that Ethereum’s walk past $1,000 happened against the backdrop of a more extensive altcoin surge, at least a part of its development is likely due to the declaration that the Casper consensus algorithm had entered alpha testing, finish with a public Testnet, preparing for the system to change from evidence of-work (PoW) to verification of-stake (PoS).

Though Casper is a long way from production release, the way that it has entered alpha testing is bullish at the Ethereum cost. Ethereum’s engineers trust Casper will convey a large group of benefits to the Ethereum network, not the slightest of which is the ability to significantly decrease its inflation rate.

This will be conceivable on the grounds that PoS requires far less power than PoW, boosting system members to approve exchanges for lower rewards than the current ones distributed to miners.

The reduced inflation will make singular cash units more significant and, after some time, conceivably enable the system to achieve a deflationary state in which fewer coins enter the course than those lost or destroyed.

 

Story credit: ccn.com

Image: Google images

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bitcoin-1MB block is dangerous

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1MB block is dangerous to Bitcoin

04.07.2017, Barry’s Silbert’s New York agreement receive a new criticism in form of blog from Luke-jr. well-known Bitcoin core developer.

This post came before SegWit2x’ day- the code that carries the roadmap settled upon at Barry’s meeting-entered beta phase.

He says about the Bitcoin’s future with SegWit2x’s. “4–8MB block sizes are not sane. Even 1MB blocks are already clearly dangerous to Bitcoin.” In addition, “I cannot foresee myself consenting to the hard fork proposal under almost any circumstances, except perhaps with a soft fork to limit the size to something reasonable.”

By adding the whole SegWit2x phenomenon, Luke-jr is another source of criticism. He adds, “distraction from the upcoming BIP148 soft Fork, which is already irreversibly deployed to the network.”

Barry’s had hard struggle from the beginning. Accordingly, he also contributes in the meeting, especially Roger Ver showing the sign of U-turn.

The concluded word

Luke-jr was cautious to note any SegWit2x scheming would likely initiate and finished with NYA Bitmain participant. In that scenario, he comes to and ends with the point, “I don’t mean to imply that all the participants to the NYA have this goal [distraction from BIP148] in mind! But rather that the design of SegWit2x is such that it fits this purpose.” In addition,“Bitmain may very well have done this intentionally. but it seems unlikely anyone else intended it.”

Complete detail is available on Twitter,

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