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The blockchain immutability myth

Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

The blockchain immutability myth

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

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Bitcoin Goes Past $4,000, Again! Next Stop $5,000?

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Bitcoin’s back at it again with a major boost crossing $4,000.

Image credits: Bitcoin.com

 

It’s really become a routine for bitcoin owners to wake up to a different price almost every day.

The price of bitcoin has been a bit stationery ever since China regulators announced a ban on ICOs and shut down of BTCChina by October. It tumbled down to $3,700 from $4,000 and remained in that range for the past two weeks.

But, now with the price coming around $4,050 and rising, it’s not too early to say that Bitcoin is back in the game. There hasn’t been an instance where bitcoin has failed to make a come-back and this was definitely one of those times.

So, what’s prompted this latest rally? It’s possible that the speculation of China’s exchange shut down is just temporary, especially since it was never formally announced. But regardless, this just proves that Bitcoin can survive without China and is resistant to the activities of a country.

Next stop, $5,000?

The bitcoin rally we experienced on Wednesday has assured several Bitcoin analysts and traders that if the current upward descent is maintained, we might see a $5,000 hit soon.

A well-known bitcoin trader and investor, Tuur Demeester, also distinguished that if the trading volume in Japan, South Korea, Europe and the US sustains, we could be in for another strong rally in the near future.

News Credits: steemit.com

Tags: Bitcoin news

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Top digital currencies of the world

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Cryptocurrency or digital currency is a well-known term now a day. We are now a part of the digital era.  In addition, we have more 3000 cryptocurrencies right now. Moreover, like someone says that we are going to replace paper money with digital money.

Are all cryptocurrencies treating equally?

what is the reason behind the creation of these digital currencies? Everyone want to know the reason. Accordingly, Some of them were created as a joke or “just because”. Few were a part of a scheme. Whereas, the worth or value of any cryptocurrency is because of its user’s demand.

Same like other useful assets like oil, stock, property etc. Accordingly, digital’s currencies’ value also faces the rise and fall in its value. By creating a scary situation in form of risky investment and rise, fall in its values.

Why we need the digital currencies

Here, the question is why we people need these digital currencies. First, government or other exchange charge a heavy amount for routine transactions. where the international transactions become costlier. Moreover, digital currency invention brings the revolutionary change in routine transactions. people do the transaction without any heavy fees. And, the most important thing is, users are allowing to do the transaction without the middle person. They are free to do transactions, where they want in the world. This is the first and foremost reason, why we need digital currency.

Main characteristics of digital currencies 

A cryptocurrency should fall on some characteristics are as follows:

Capitalization and trading volume

Market capitalization is the total of all cryptocurrencies. While the high market capitalization indicates the real worth of the cryptocurrency and its availability.  The most important thing in the capitalization is its daily trading volume. Which is directly change due to exchange percentage. Whereas, the healthy economy of the transactions is because of trading volume.

Verification process

The main feature of the cryptocurrencies is verification process. The old method is proof of work. A computer has to enhance its energy and time by solving the trike mathematical problem. Whether downside of this method is that it needs massive energy to operate. In addition, the system with less processing power and handsome out is proof of stake. This proof of stake system is used to solve these problems.

Acceptance

If you don’t carry out the transactions with cryptocurrency means it has no acceptance in retailer market. Meanwhile,  it’s important to do transactions with digital currency and make it sure that currency has market acceptance and market values as well.

Above all are some characteristics of the digital currencies. Now, we will discuss the top 10 cryptocurrencies of the world.

Top 10 digital currencies        

There are more than 500 digital currencies but we will discuss few of them.

Bitcoin

First and foremost, cryptocurrency anonymously created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009. Bitcoin has the biggest market capitalization around $10 million, the prominent capitalization as compare to other cryptocurrencies. Read all about bitcoin 

Ethereum  

A cryptocurrency platform who has the ability to execute peer-to-peer, smart contact. Ethereum was created by Vitalik Buterin in 2015. And, split into two parts Ethereum and Ethereum Classic due to DAO attack. Whereas, with the confidence of next generation platform, Ethereum has around $1.1 market capitalization.

Ripple   

Now, the next is the ripple. Which is gross time settlement process? The cryptocurrency released in 2012. To reduce the cost, this system is integrated into few banks.

 Litecoin   

Charles Lee introduces the litecoin in 2011. Accordingly, has the roughly market capitalization $180 million, litecoin also used in sale and purchase process.

Monero

A digital currency that focuses on the privacy terms and decentralization is Monero, launched in 2014. Whereas, It is totally based on the cryptonote protocol and algorithmic differences directly relating to the blockchain. By using ring signature technology Monero keeps focusing on the privacy of the users. With around $138 market capitalization Monero has increasing users’ percentage.

Ethereum classic

A technology built or use by anyone is ethereum classic, run on blockchain technology. It is an open source project built by the public. No one has the authority to control ethereum classic. In addition, it is not famous enough but has the market capitalization $575,782,074.

Dash  

Dash is basically a digital cash, which has the ability to use anywhere. In addition, It is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency which offers private transaction as well as instant transactions. Accordingly, It is also known as Darkcoin or Xcoin with the market capitalization $664,377,178,  in 2014.

Maidsafecoin

The idea behind is to share your computers as a dropbox and google drive. It has around $4.3 market cap.

Augur

Augur has the market cap $188,505,585. While the network is working by users to contribute the storage and computing power.

Nem

It is not only a cryptocurrency but it is a blockchain product who is handling the native currency token. Market cap of Nem is $1,031,274,000.

 

Good luck!

 

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How to save your bitcoins

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How to save your Bitcoin?

Other cryptocurrencies and bitcoin are the digital finance with lots of benefits. Basically, it gives the freedom to users but with a high rate of responsibilities. Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency user need to be aware of risk regarding the safety of it.

Losing your coins through hacking is one of the dangerous act ever. Especially, using cryptocurrencies for business transactions. In that case, your needs full security for your coin.  we will discuss some security points for your bitcoins in this article.

Use strong password

Cryptocurrency accounts need the strong password. Most of the users make mistake while they use simple passwords on multiple accounts. Which is causing the heavy loss in transactions. So, make your accounts secure. In addition, set your password of minimum 16 words including letters, numbers, symbols, and capitals.

Check your addresses

Bitcoin accidents are costly. So, take time and make sure the addresses while you are sending money. You need to keep proper check while you are sending or receiving money. Make sure your bitcoin wallet addresses are right because there are too many scams sites that try to steal your bitcoins.

Use Authentications

While you are opening an account with the exchange, you need to activate two-factor authentication for security reasons. Because of your two-factor authentication, it generates the secondary password on your device. Every time, you log in, the site will send you a message of verification. So, scams need the approach to your mobile first.

Cold storage

Isolation of your private keys from the internet to offline is the cold storage of your bitcoins. Paper wallet or hardware wallet is creating this storage. Once, you do it properly, these keys will be un-hackable. Whereas, hardware wallets are the best option to keep your bitcoin secure.

Update your device regularly

Most of the scams directly tend to target window users. Because it is easy to attack any window with viruses. Anti-viruses are not using all the time, they are not able to secure your system mostly. To secure your devices to keep your bitcoin secure, you need to keep crypto related activity separate. Linux is well-known in this context. You just need to update your device.

Counterparty risk

If you are an active member in the trading process, you need to minimize the counterparty risk. For that purpose, you need to keep some points in mind,

  1. While you are not actively taking part in trading, then do not keep your coins in exchange.
  2. It’s better for you to use 20%-30% of coins in trading.
  3. Among several exchanges, diversify your bitcoins.
  4. Make this thing sure that it is fine standing with the crypto community.

Backup of your keys

Electrum and trezor generate 13 or 24 words seeds. who restore your addresses. Make sure the backup of your keys. Write them somewhere else or store in USB device.

 Different addresses

Your transaction can be seen on the different ledger. To secure your coins, you need to generate the new password with each transaction.

Conclusion

Bitcoin transactions are treating like a digital cash. It is the irreversible process of transactions. So, it needs protection. Enhance your security habits to protect your coins.

Tags: Bitcoin payment, Bitcoin Information.

Good luck!

 

 

 

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Bitcoin Explained

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Bitcoin

Following the uncertainty of the current world and its unstable economy where currencies face great flux every day, a new economy was introduced under the alias Satoshi Nakamoto. Under the worlds infinite disarray, Bitcoin emerged as a decentralized and a digital cash system with regulated by almost no one.

This peer-to-peer networking system runs through electronic signatures and crypto graphics to generate currency- Bitcoins. Bitcoins are not only a form of currency but also a form of investment for some investors who keep these coins in hopes of an increase in their value and enjoy the opportunity cost.

Mining

Just like normal everyday cash, this currency doesn’t have to be printed and issued by the federals or the central banks. Bitcoins are generated through a process called ‘mining’. These coins are mined out of the system by giving complex and advanced mathematical problems for your computer to solve. The target is to generate a 64-digit number as an answer to that puzzle. When a system solves the given complex algorithm, it obtains a specific fraction of Bitcoins every time.

The bitcoin network automatically sets the difficulty level of the mine to be mine next. On average, there are around 25 Bitcoins mined every 10 minutes. During the process, only a set number of Bitcoins can be mined during a certain period. After every four years, this reward is halved. Currently, it is up to 12.5 Bitcoins for every mathematical problem solved.

Limited Supply

Fiat currencies have an unlimited supply and their value can be easily manipulated anytime by the regulatory bodies. Given its independent nature, Bitcoin has tightly restricted supply controlled by the underlying algorithm of the system. There is a set number of coins that can ever be mined ever. A total number of 21 million bitcoins exist in the system.

Bitcoin at its peak has managed to engage the market by over 2 million dollars. The lowest has been $2. Today the value roughly swifts around $9,000.

No economy supports the sudden fluctuations in the system. Too much too fast will result in the dropping of the value of the currency. Too much too slow will cause the economy to halt. Due to these reasons, Bitcoin has a self-stabilizing system to regulate the economy at the most favorable grounds.

Exchangers allow the holders to transfer and buy or sell these Bitcoin crypto coins among other users. One of the famous platforms is Bitstamp. This allows users to buy Bitcoins in fiat currency and also enables them to sell them to other potential users. Bitstamp enables users to store the coins too as e-wallets. But beware of the hackers, as they can dangerously destabilize these digital economies.

With the gradual growing influence of these cryptocurrencies in the world today, a lot of applications and platforms have shown loyalty to the Bitcoin. Platforms like WikiLeaks and WordPress have started accepting bitcoins as means of their payments and transaction currency.

MintChip

Inspired by the Bitcoin, the Canadian government has launched a similar cryptocurrency named, MintChip. This electronic currency is backed by the government, unlike the Bitcoin.

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What Is An Altcoin – A Brief Look Into The Concept Of Altcoin

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Most people these days are completely aware of Bitcoin – a digital currency which has taken the digital market by storm over the last couple of years. However, a large portion of these people is not aware of the fact that there exists a large number of other cryptocurrencies as well. Ether, Ripple, Zcash, and Montero are few to name. The general terminology for these cryptos is ‘Altcoins’.

Each Altcoin is different in characteristics. Few of them differ in the economic model while others have different distribution methods. It depends on an Altcoin’s design whether it has to rely on proof-of-work mining algorithms or not. Moreover, a number of Altcoins offer an extra adaptable programing language, while others follow the same privacy terms as Bitcoin.

All Altcoins are not much interesting though. Some don’t even provide handsome offers to their users. For example, Altcoin is the combination of the total amount of coins, which clearly means that each coin has low worth. In this post, we will have a brief discussion about different aspects of Altcoin.

What is Altcoin Mining?

A process of mining new Altcoins. There are two types of Altcoin mining: single mining and pool mining. Single mining may not give you expected rewards and is way slower than pool mining. On the other hand, pool mining has a large number of participants sharing their mining equipment’s hash power which ultimately makes the process quick and simple. Besides, the rewards in pool mining are much higher than those of single mining. Following are few steps that will help you start mining Altcoin.

How To Start Altcoin Mining?

To start Altcon mining, you will need:

Acquiring an Address:

Before starting mining, you need to register with the well-reputed platform and have a digital address. You give this address to pool inform them where to pay your rewards. The mining pool provider will sync the blockchain for you.

Funding:

Start funding to your account and create your public key.

Connecting to the pool:

Once you have an address, you will need to install a mining software and connect to the mining pool. After joining the pool, you can start mining.

Once you have an address, you will need to install a mining software and connect to the mining pool. After joining the pool, you can start mining.

What is Staking Pool?

It is a proof of stake mining pool. BTC and other altcoins are used to purchase Altcoin. Later, these altcoins are held in their individual wallets. In addition, each wallet will contain the staked altcoins. The number of the altcoins holding in your wallets completely depends on the price and percentage of the Altcoin.

What Is The Process Of Staking Pool?

Deposit your POS coins into an electronic wallet, so that it can easily connect with the other altcoins available on the internet. Basically, this is the result of connected wallets. Transactions get verified and confirmed which enables the receipt of the reward.

Altcoin Mining

What Are Best Altcoins?

Based on the market cap, following is the rundown of top altcoins:

  1. Ethereum: $19,567,960,363
  2. Ripple: $6,485,335,767
  3. Dash: $1,294,582,036
  4. Nem: $1,174,185,000
  5. Ethereum classic: $1,409,231,346
  6. Litecoin: $2,167,228,375
  7. Monero: $539,679,521
  8. Zcash: $335,018,425

What Are Best Altcoin Trading Platforms?

Few exchanges help you to deal with your altcoins on daily biases. The list of top altcoin exchanges includes:

  • Local Bitcoins
  • net
  • Kraken
  • Bitfinex
  • Bittrex
  • Poloniex
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