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The blockchain immutability myth

Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

The blockchain immutability myth

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

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bitcoin-1MB block is dangerous

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1MB block is dangerous to Bitcoin

04.07.2017, Barry’s Silbert’s New York agreement receive a new criticism in form of blog from Luke-jr. well-known Bitcoin core developer.

This post came before SegWit2x’ day- the code that carries the roadmap settled upon at Barry’s meeting-entered beta phase.

He says about the Bitcoin’s future with SegWit2x’s. “4–8MB block sizes are not sane. Even 1MB blocks are already clearly dangerous to Bitcoin.” In addition, “I cannot foresee myself consenting to the hard fork proposal under almost any circumstances, except perhaps with a soft fork to limit the size to something reasonable.”

By adding the whole SegWit2x phenomenon, Luke-jr is another source of criticism. He adds, “distraction from the upcoming BIP148 soft Fork, which is already irreversibly deployed to the network.”

Barry’s had hard struggle from the beginning. Accordingly, he also contributes in the meeting, especially Roger Ver showing the sign of U-turn.

The concluded word

Luke-jr was cautious to note any SegWit2x scheming would likely initiate and finished with NYA Bitmain participant. In that scenario, he comes to and ends with the point, “I don’t mean to imply that all the participants to the NYA have this goal [distraction from BIP148] in mind! But rather that the design of SegWit2x is such that it fits this purpose.” In addition,“Bitmain may very well have done this intentionally. but it seems unlikely anyone else intended it.”

Complete detail is available on Twitter,

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How to secure your Bitcoin Wallets

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How to secure your Bitcoin Wallets

If you are going to do transactions through bitcoin, then you need a wallet. Without any wallet, you are unable to do that. For transactions purpose, you have to download or create secure bitcoin wallet address. The most important thing is, how you can secure your wallets from scams.

Wait …. Wait…

Here, we will discuss your wallet security but first, you have to know about wallets and types of it. Some of them are;

  1. Online bitcoin wallets
  2. Bitcoin hardware wallets
  3. Software wallets
  4. Paper wallets

Each wallet has its own characteristics. Like, you can do low-cost transactions by using online bitcoin wallet. i.e. COPAY available on IOS & on all windows. If you need to secure your transaction process you also can use bitcoin hardware wallets. i.e. ledger Nano, Trezor, OpenDime, etc. In addition, paper wallets are private keys printed from the offline computer.

Security terms for bitcoin wallets:

As, we know that, there is no middle authority to control the transaction process. The margin of risk at your end is too much high. Especially, when your transactions are in billions. At that point, you need crystal clear and transparent transaction system. I am here, to provide you complete detail about the security of your money. Because there are a large number of scams in the market.

Don’t be afraid, there are many secure ways for your money transactions. By keeping these points in mind, you can keep your spending habits private.

Keep separate wallet with strong password:

There are a large number of wallets/addresses for your bitcoin Then, to protect your wallets from scams, encrypt it with the strong password.

You can use paper wallet and hardware wallets for savings. Whereas, for daily expenses, use mobile, window wallets.

Protect your privacy:

you, then download the whole blockchain like bitcoin core or armory. Never ever tell your private key to anyone.  Bank account number is equitant to your wallet address, then, your private wallet key is your pin.

Don’t re-use the wallet addresses:

Today’s wallets use a new address for each transaction. Which makes the easy way to group transactions, difficult or totally insane decision of taking or re-use the address as in group transaction.

Backups:

Users of bitcoin should keep the backup of his/her wallets in the different form.

Instructions are depending on your client. For example, the desktop client is used to store your bitcoin wallets. In the case of fire or water damage, you need to keep your backups in separate physical form.  For extra protection of paper, wallets are to write in metal form.

Web wallets side effects:

There are more than 100 cases of hacking of bitcoin wallets. Web wallets should be used in daily spending. For the sake of saving bitcoins, you need cold storage.

Brain wallets:

These wallets are another example of cold storage wallet. Basically, it is the combination of numbers and words you keep in your brain. When you are going to enter passphrase into a site, you’ll get your private key.

Tags: Most secure Wallet

At the end…

Above all is the short discussion to secure bitcoin wallets address as well as bitcoin. Once you take the step in bitcoin revolution then it is not difficult to maintain its wallets.

GOOD LUCK!

 

 

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Bitcoin Sky-rockets above $4,400 – Sets new all-time high

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Just about a week ago, the cryptocurrency’s value was around $3,382 however, it gained a little over 30% and stood at $4,111 until Sunday, August 14.

On August 15, global exchanges experienced another $200 gain, rising to $4382 from $4,111 just a day ago. This movement is created from the sudden interest shown by new investors and analysts.

Investment managers and experts are now not only following the digital currency, but licensed financial specialists have put about $200 million in an initial coin offering (ICO) for a blockchain network known as filecoin a week ago, a project that targets at making a distributed protocol for file storage.

Additionally, with information from Coinmarketcap demonstrating the digital currencies are currently esteemed at $141 billion, a rise of about 20 percent from $118 billion a week ago.

 

News credits: coindesk.com

Image credits: dailyreckoning.com

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Bitcoin Experts Warn Users; say Bitcoin Will Experience a Drop

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The bitcoin market worries experts

At the moment, the value of bitcoin is sky rocketing due to the rising demand of the cryptocurrency.  This has led many experts to believe that a fall is expected in the market soon. Currently, Bitcoin is preparing to reach a new record as it is on the journey of going from $4,031 to $4,500.

Bitcoin value has increased by 60% in the past month and experts are predicting that something could go very wrong in the market.

The reason behind bitcoin’s drive to such high notes is that a larger number of people have begun to obtain bitcoin and this increased demand has led to increasing the market capitalization of the cryptocurrency.

The head of investment strategy at Black Rock, Richard Ternhill, recently commented on the Cryptocurrency Exchange situation as “terrifying”.

In the meantime, Goldman Sachs specialists predict that the bitcoin price is expected to experience a sharp drop and its duplicates would downfall to zero. They are expecting the price to drop to $1,800.

 

Story Credits: marketsmorning.com

Image Credits: shutterstock.com

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Best Way to Buy Bitcoin with Bank Accounts

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Bitcoin is for the unbanked – and those who’d like to get unbanked. Transferring bitcoins to bank account is not viable, but buying is. There are several exchanges that allow the feature of buying bitcoin with the bank account. The most renowned ones being:

CoinBase:

CoinBase is the world’s biggest Bitcoin broker. In the United States, you can purchase bitcoins with an associated bank account by means of ACH bank transfer. In Europe, you can purchase with your bank account by means of SEPA exchange. Buys made with ACH take 5 days for the coins to be conveyed, while SEPA buys take under two days. CoinBase charges 1.49% fee on all exchanges. Americans may include a Visa or Mastercard as reinforcement to unlock instant payments by means of bank transfer.

BitStamp:

Bitstamp is one of the world’s biggest Bitcoin exchanges. It makes it simple for Europeans to buy bulks of bitcoins quickly with SEPA bank exchange. Practically anybody on the planet can utilize their bank account to send a wire exchange to Bitstamp. Fees may apply.

Kraken:

Kraken is the world’s biggest euro-designated Bitcoin exchange based on daily trading volume. It underpins bank transfers from US, European, Canadian, British, and Japanese clients and deposits can be made through SEPA exchange and international bank transfers.

So, these are the top three Bitcoin exchanges which allow their clients to buy bitcoins with the bank account. based on your location, choose one that you are most convenient with.

Tags: best place to buy bitcoins, buy bitcoin with bank account

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