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Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

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Get Your Online Bitcoin Wallets Adderss Through Btcwonder.com

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Bitcoin wallets or digital wallets are the wallets that require a web browser in order to run, just like websites out there. It’s safe to say that they are pretty much similar to a website.

Surprisingly, the web wallet options are thin compared to the iPhone or Android options.

Right now, there are two Bitcoin wallets worth using. The most reliable online bitcoin wallet is Green Address.

GreenAddress:

To get a Bitcoin wallet that provided protection against cyber-attacks, GreenAddress is the way to go. GreenAddress takes cyber-attacks seriously and provides your coin’s protection against these attacks.

GreenAddress is a “multi-signature” Bitcoin online wallet. This implies GreenAddress shares control of your Bitcoin with you. While other online wallets are prone to cyber-attacks, GreenAddress gives genuine two-factor validation keeping your coins protected in your wallet.

Spectro Coin:

SpectroCoin is London-based bitcoin wallet, exchange, debit card and merchant solution provider. It serves customers in more than 150+ nations. Right now, it encourages more than 20 types of deposits and withdrawals including bank exchanges, credit/debit cards, and cash deposits to name a few. It also gives bitcoin wallet addresses to iOS, Android, and Windows Phone users.

These two are the safest online bitcoin wallets. Although these wallets provide all sorts of security, the ultimate protection comes down to the wallet owner. The best wallet security is the protection of its private key. As long as the key is unshared, chances of your coins getting stolen are very slim.

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A look inside America’s largest Bitcoin mining operation

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Dave Carlson, who owns America’s largest bitcoin mining operation could be mining as much as $8 million worth of bitcoin every month. However, Dave dismisses this figure as ‘exaggeration’ and ‘fake news’ created by media.

With the mainstream media proceeding to paint bitcoin mining operation as modern age gold rush, Carlson’s story has been of particular interest, regardless of whether it hasn’t generally been put in the correct context.

To be fair, though, evaluations of his potential earnings don’t appear to be far-fetched when you consider he went from driving a $300 Honda to directing the largest bitcoin mining operation in America in simply under a year, and that bitcoin mining is still broadly misunderstood.

All things considered, when the facts are examined, his business is no less impressive.

Tags: Bitcoin videos, bitcoin mining

To get to the truth of his story, CoinDesk addressed Carlson about the increased attention his Washington-based bitcoin mining operation (he refused to disclose the location) is getting, how he assembled the organization and how it earned $8m a month when bitcoin costs were close to their peak.

“I used to spend long hours configuring servers, assembling rigs, and connecting cables. I now have a technical team that covers assembly, deployment, facilities, optimization, and management. I invest the greater part of my energy dealing with the bigger issues the organization faces in regards to future development and operations.” said Carlson to sum up his business growth.

 

Credits: CoinDesk.com

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Bitcoin Mining – What Are the Best Mining Programs?

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If you are reading this article, chances are you already know about Bitcoin mining program as it’s the easiest way to get bitcoins. But did you know that the mining itself can be divided into two further: solo mining and mining through a pool?

In terms of profit, there isn’t much difference between the two. Solo mining offers large but irregular payouts while pool mining offers small and frequent rewards. In the end, both the methods add up to the same amount.

Whatever you choose, it’s totally up to you. But remember that there are certain steps that you need to follow in order to succeed. The steps include:

  • Having the right hardware
  • A software that matches your needs
  • Setting up a method to receive your profits and rewards
  • Solving the algorithms which seem to be getting tougher by each block you mine.

In this post, we have discussed some of the leading software programs to help learn how to mine bitcoins efficiently.

CGMiner:

Our list starts with CGMiner. CGMiner is open source, written in C and currently the most popular GPU/FPGA/ASIC miner. The software is compatible with Windows, OSX, and Linux.

CGMiner has the ability to monitor, overclock, remote interface and fan speed control. Moreover, using a mini database, CPU mining support, Multi GPU support and binary loading of kernels, it can also detect the new blocks which ultimately quickens the mining process.

BFGminer:

BFGminer is designed especially for FPGA/ASICs and is a derivative of CGminer. Some interesting features of BFGminer are:

  • Fan control and integrated overclocking.
  • Vector support.
  • Crypt mining support for both GPU and CPU.
  • ADL device reordering
  • Decentralized mining protocol and much more.

BitMinter:

If you are wondering how to mine bitcoins quick, BitMinter is the way to go. The miner focuses on quick mining, high rewards and is considered to be the most efficient when it comes to getting in touch with potential clients and users.

BitMinter belongs directly to a mining pool. In order to join and become part of a pool, you must register by filling in a sign-up form.

BTCMiner:

BTCMiner is an open source software and is compatible with Linux and windows. The bitcoin mining software doesn’t require any Xilinx/license and possesses the ability to automatically choose a frequency with highest hashes. The key features of BTCMiner include:

  • USB-FPGA modules 1.15b and 1.15d
  • USB-FPGA modules 1.15x
  • USBA-FPGA modules 1.15y
  • No JTAG programmer required
  • Requires just one mining rig from one software instance

Poclbm:

Another miner with the ability to mine some quick blocks. Poclbm can perform hashing computations in a quick manner and is compatible with a wide range of hardware. The miner works best when used with a modern GPU.

According to some users, Poclbm is great for multiple machine mining but not so great for masses.

Conclusion:

These are some of the best Bitcoin mining programs that can help you mine some quick blocks. Each comes with incredible features, which ultimately makes it super hard to pick the right one. However, all you need to know here is to only choose the one that best meets your requirements. Do that and you are good to go.

Tags: Best way to earn bitcoins.

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Bitcoin News: Another Huge Bitcoin Exchange Hacked

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Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin are very trendy these days. Due to this popularity, many hackers in all over the world are speciously looking to get advantages of that. One of the largest Bitcoin exchange in the world was just hacked.

The Main Story:

The value of Bitcoin and Other digital currencies increased in past few months, which tells the main reason why people with malicious intentions will be looking to steal this amazing Virtual Currency.
According to Yonhap News, hackers attack Bithumb, cooperating about 30,000 accounts, which is the 3% of the total exchange’s customers. It is not clear how much currency was stolen, but some people said that they have lost money in the attack.

Image Credits: The Hacker News

Bithumb understood last week that the home personal computer of its employee was hacked. That’s the reason the hackers may have stolen customer data. But the stolen data does not have passwords, and the company also said that digital wallets which contain Bitcoin and some other coins were not emptied.
On any given day, in the world of cryptocurrency trade volume, Bithumb is the world’s top 3rd or 4th exchange.

A BraveNewCoin report explains that Bithumb has more than 75% of Bitcoin market of the South Korea. This exchange hosts 10% of the global Bitcoin trade. It also says that some 100 customers might have lost millions of gained, as one person has lost 1.2 billion after the hack. To put the thing in the perception, 1 billion gained is equal to $870,000. Or 340 Bitcoin at the current rate as 1 Bitcoin costs $2602.77 as of this moment.
Customers affected by this hack have now filed a complaint with cyber crime report Center of National Police Agency.

Story Credits: bgr.com

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Why Did Bitcoin.Com Co-Founder Switched To Bitcoin Cash?

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Emil Oldenburg, co-founder of Bitcoin.com, has sold his bitcoin and switched to Bitcoin Cash since he is distrustful about its future, as indicated by Breakit, a Swedish website.

Oldenburg said bitcoin is currently the riskiest investment someone can make.

He said bitcoin’s transaction times, fees, and lead times have undermined bitcoin’s value as an investment.

Bitcoin transaction fees have multiplied at regular intervals, and it now takes around 4.5 hours to affirm a transaction. Charges went up to $26 per exchange as of late, according to Ars Technica.

Bitcoin.com has millions of unique visitors each month, as per Similarweb.

Oldenburg said Bitcoin.com’s revenue numbers are expansive, however, he didn’t want to uncover subtle elements. His own particular salary and those of 60 associates in Tokyo have been in bitcoin.

At Stake Liquidity:

Bitcoin’s liquidity is at stake, he said.

Individuals have not perceived bitcoin’s inherent risks since most have just bought it and have not attempted to sell it or make trades with it. When they understand the risks, they will begin selling it.

The bitcoin organize is unusable, he said. The issues happen when exchanges are recorded on the blockchain. There is a predetermined number of exchanges a man can make for each second that depends on the block size that stores the exchanges. This restriction has made bitcoin an illiquid and unusable digital currency.

Misguided Management:

While these issues could be addressed, Oldenburg does not figure they will be because the system is controlled by what he calls “fanatical bitcoin Talibans.”

The authorities running the bitcoin network see bitcoin as computerized gold and a specialized experiment instead of something individuals use.

Bitcoin.com has quit creating services for bitcoin to concentrate on Bitcoin Cash, which split from bitcoin in August and has turned into the second biggest digital currency.

For whatever period of time that the bitcoin network is controlled by the current directors, bitcoin won’t be a money for regular use. Rather, Oldenburg sees the future in Bitcoin Cash.

Bitcoin Cash Has The Support Of Others:

Craig Wright, an Australian businessperson who once claimed to be Satoshi Nakamoto, recently tweeted that 2018 will be the year in which Bitcoin Cash reaches to its full potential, as its limitations will be evacuated and its security will be improved.

Wright called attention to that among what’s coming for the digital currency in 2018 are “secure limit frameworks to make even web wallets secure,” enhanced mixers, and transactions with improved privacy. When asked who’s dealing with these upgrades, and when a public roadmap would be available, Wright answered, “A few. More open soon.”

Roger Ver and Calvin Ayre, two bitcoin cash proponents, have also announced to use their influence to rebrand bitcoin cash as bitcoin.

So, the year 2018 seems to be full of interesting prospects for bitcoin cash. But, will all these predictions regarding BCH come true. We will have to wait and see.

 

Story credits: ccn.com

Image: Google images

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