View: 374
Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency. There is no physical existence of Bitcoin, just the verification and value it has been given by a global peer-to-peer network. All these transactions are recorded in Blockchains.

The blockchain is very much like a public shared ledger. All the confirmed transactions performed ever using Bitcoins are recorded in this ledger. These blocks are an ultra-secure data, treated like cash. All the transactions are received and sent through wallets which are digitally signed. To ensure security, bitcoin wallets come with a private key or seed. These signatures ensure that the transaction is performed by the current owner of the wallet and provides with the mathematical proof. In reality, there is no transfer of Bitcoins but the change of ownership and quantities of Bitcoins.

How Does a Transaction Work?

If person A needs to transfer Bitcoins to person B, the transaction carries three parts.

  • An Input- record of wallet of person A
  • An Amount- the number of bitcoins person A sends to person B
  • An output- person B’s wallet

How Can You send Bitcoins?

To send the Bitcoins to anybody you require two things.

  • Bitcoin address
  • Private key

A bitcoin address is generated by an individual randomly. It mainly consists of a sequence of numbers and letters.

A private is a secret key with a unique sequence of numbers and letters.

When person A wants to send coins to person B, she signs a message with her private key to authorize the transaction. The transaction will include,

  • Input (source wallet)
  • Number of Bitcoins to sent
  • Output (person B’s address)

Person A then sends the number of Bitcoins to the Bitcoin network from her wallet. Once entered in the network, miners will then verify the transaction included in the blockchain. The miners will then solve the mathematical puzzle and in the end, it will verify that person B is the new owner of the specified number of coins.

Blockchains

Just like account ledgers containing amount and names, blockchains function almost the same. People exchange money by changing this file.

For instance, if person A sells a product to person B for $5, person A’s balance goes up by $5 and person B will have a reduced balance of $5.

There are no third parties involved in the system, like banks or other financial institutions. So, who takes control and responsibility of controlling and maintain this ledger? Every coin holder maintains their own copy of the ledger. All the participants can see each other’s ledger and their balances. In Bitcoin ledgers, these names are exchanged with specific numbers to ensure anonymity.

To keep every ledger synced and harmonized, there is a protocol that needs to be followed. To do a transaction you tell everyone by broadcasting a message with your account number, the receiver’s account number and the amount to be transferred. Every coin holder around in the world will update their ledger.

There are people who help in maintaining the system. You can simply use the system to perform the transaction without maintaining the ledger.

To ensure sender is the real owner of the account, Bitcoin requires a signature to verify it, but a mathematical signature.

System

When an account is created, a private key is generated mathematically linked to that account number. The private key and the text from the transaction are processed through a special cryptographic function to generate a signature. To make sure the signature is done by the wallet owner and to the specific transaction, another function allows the other people to verify the signature. These signatures cannot be copied as they are unique to each transaction.

The main problem with the system is that this cannot verify when a transaction was performed.

For example, if a person falsely has to withdraw 2 cheques out of an account but it has enough money to cover one account. the bank will refuse the second cheque due to an inadequate amount of cash after the with drawl of the first cheque. It is much harder to determine the order in Bitcoin. Due to the scattered individuals all over the world taking part in the transaction, there may be a delay in different orders in different places. Fraudsters could lie about these time lapses.

Two recipients might both think their transaction is first and ship a product allowing the fraudster two spent the money twice.

New transactions go into a pool of pending transactions. These transactions then get into the giant chain that locks in their order. A lottery is then held, enabling participants to choose a transaction of their choice to solve a special problem to link them to the end of the chain. The person to find the solution first wins and gets their transaction next in the chain.

That’s how pretty much all the transactions in the Bitcoin system are performed.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.

Leave a Reply

Type Comments Here

Your email address will not be published.

15 − 10 =

Share Your Toughts

View: 455

Bitcoin & Ethereum Drive Cryptocurrency Market Cap Above $150 billion

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Bitcoin and Ethereum’s Gains

It only took a few hours for Bitcoin to shoot back up from $3,894 to $4,264.26 on Wednesday, which caused the total market capitalization of the entire cryptocurrency world to surge above $150 billion.

It’s opposite team mate, Ether, also rose on Wednesday, marking the highest it’s ever been since June. These two unknowingly, drove the market cap of the digital currencies insane.

In particular, at the moment Bitcoin’s market capitalization is around $69.8 billion, which makes it twice as large as Ethereum, its closest rival.

However, Bitcoin has been a tad bit volatile lately, suffering from a 10% drop after it had crossed $4000 earlier. These fluctuations were an after effect of the scaling issue that was recently undertaken by the network. This is intended to increase the transaction sizes in the blockchain network. This new protocol is known as Segregated Witness, which is said to solve the scaling matter.

Related: Bitcoin drops below $4000

 

On the other hand, Ether rose to $324.07, its highest since June 23. It’s known to have doubled since its last low hit in mid-July. Overall, its performance has been well in 2017, as it is up more than 4000%, which brings its market cap to around $30.1 billion.

These recent increases in Bitcoin and Ether have brought together the total market cap of all digital currencies above $150 billion.

 

News Credit: marketwatch.com

 

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 450

Bitcoin To Replace Fiat In 5 Years – Says Renowned Bitcoin Millionaire

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

In five years’ time, fiat is no longer going to be of any use Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies replace it. That is according to one of the renowned Bitcoin millionaires and venture capital investor Tim Draper who was talking with Forbes at the WebSummit conference in Lisbon.

Communicating his perspectives on where he sees the crypto market, he stated:

“People will laugh at you if you are still using fiat in 5 years. cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin particularly will become so relevant that fiat will be no longer of any use.”

This is clear by the fact that he acquired 30,000 bitcoins amid a government auction of assets seized from a darknet market Silk Road in 2014. At the time, those coins were worth $20 million. Today, they are esteemed at over $214 million.

Bitcoin has gained unprecedented highs in 2017. Over the last couple of weeks, the money has surged to above $7,000. It was within touching distance of $8,000 at the news that the SegWit2x had been suspended.

Staying positive about the fate of digital money, Draper trusts that the fiat framework will, in the long run, vanish as individuals look toward coins like Bitcoin or Ethereum. As indicated by him, they remain reliable stores of significant worth compared to fiat. His thinking behind this is that fiat monetary standards are bound by national borders. For instance, he refers to the Nigerian Naira, which drops 30 percent when a man crosses the border.

While this might be the situation, there are countless altcoins in the cryptocurrency market. CoinMarketCap puts that figure at 986 which have a market esteem. New ones are continuously being made, which are all claiming to give another answer for out daily life payment solutions. Regardless of this, however, the extensive number of digital money in the market isn’t stressing Draper. Actually, he conceives that they will inevitably all cooperate at some stage.

They’re all going to interrelate … and there will be trade rates for every one of them. My figure is that it will unify around a wallet that you have, and when you pay for that Starbucks, your wallet will advance to whichever cash has the most value.

It remains to be checked whether and when that happens, however from somebody who has been involved in cryptocurrency trading and has led interests in prosperous organizations, for example, Twitter, Skype, and Tesla, Draper might be on to something.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 453

Different ways to buy bitcoin

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Buying bitcoin is simple. As simple as signing up for a mobile app. The first step to buying bitcoin is signing up for a bitcoin wallet on sites like blochchain.info by filling up a form with essential details. once you have the wallet, there are different ways through which you can fill it up with bitcoins. Here we are going to fill you in on the 4 most common ways to buying bitcoin.

Buying Locally:

Follow these simple steps to buy bitcoin locally:

  • Find a seller in your area who sell bitcoin for cash
  • Select the desired amount of coins
  • Place the order and receive seller’s account number
  • Deposit your cash in seller’s account
  • Upload the receipt as a proof of trade
  • Receive bitcoins in your wallet

Buy Bitcoin Online:

The best way to buy bitcoin instantly is to buy bitcoin with credit card or debit card. SpectroCoin is one of the reliable coins that accept credit / debit card payments for bitcoins.

But there’s a catch. SpectroCoin only offers $50 worth of bitcoins to its new customers. However, as they grow into reliable customers, the limit is stretched out to $200 and then $500 by the following few days.

Buying With PayPal:

Although PayPal doesn’t facilitate the direct Bitcoin purchase, there is a way around for those looking to buy bitcoin with PayPal:

  • Visit Virvox
  • Deposit money with PayPal to your account
  • Buy SLL on the exchange
  • Buy bitcoins with your SLL
  • Withdraw your bitcoins

These are few of the quickest ways to buy bitcoins. Good luck with your purchase.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 441

ICO Coins: Utility Tokens vs Security Tokens

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

Back in 2017, a boom in ICO creation was seen as hundreds of companies that were formed on the Blockchain with its attached digital currency were born in the form of an investable token. SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) already had a closer look at the ICOs token and has declared them securities in most cases. Not every token that is being developed off the Blockchain should have that quality that directs it to be categorized as securities. Only a few other types of tokens are available that can be built off the Blockchain and one of them are utility tokens.

Although there are more than two types of tokens, it’s still essential to improve these two types, as they can be used in defining a new token that comes through an ICO- the security and utility token. To understand the divergence between these two tokens, a direction can be selected by ICO that can work better for them.

utility tokens

What is Security Token?

If a value of crypto-token originates from an external tradable asset, it is categorized as a security token. If we look at the DAO tokens from 2016, it was declared by SEC that ICO tokens might be a subject to federal securities laws. ICO tokens never meant to be securities, but the chairman of SEC, Jay Clayton, noted that every ICO token that SEC has seen so far is considered as security and clarified, that if a crypto-asset that is allotted by a company upsurges in worth over time, depending on the company’s performance, it is also considered as security.

What is Utility Token?

Utility tokens are another style of tokens that serve a role in various cases where there’s a requirement of the security token. A utility token represents the future access to a service or a product of the company. The characteristic that defines the utility tokens is that they’re not intended for investments. If they’re properly organized, then this characteristic frees utility tokens from federal laws governing securities.

You can also say that utility tokens are the coupons for the company. It’s basically a token that is different from the typical ICO token that is being used by many at this time. Despite the fact that it’s not perfect for every company, there are still many examples where utility tokens have a great place against the security tokens.

Should you choose utility over security?

Many companies rely on the “securities” but still, there are many companies that will not do the same. There is a collection of multiple types of utility tokens as each of them has different features that could include the needs of ICO. So, it’s really important to split the tokens into fungible or non-fungible.

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.
View: 460

The blockchain immutability myth

Want create site? Find Free WordPress Themes and plugins.

The blockchain immutability myth

Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

The blockchain immutability myth

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

Did you find apk for android? You can find new Free Android Games and apps.