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Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency. There is no physical existence of Bitcoin, just the verification and value it has been given by a global peer-to-peer network. All these transactions are recorded in Blockchains.

The blockchain is very much like a public shared ledger. All the confirmed transactions performed ever using Bitcoins are recorded in this ledger. These blocks are an ultra-secure data, treated like cash. All the transactions are received and sent through wallets which are digitally signed. To ensure security, bitcoin wallets come with a private key or seed. These signatures ensure that the transaction is performed by the current owner of the wallet and provides with the mathematical proof. In reality, there is no transfer of Bitcoins but the change of ownership and quantities of Bitcoins.

How Does a Transaction Work?

If person A needs to transfer Bitcoins to person B, the transaction carries three parts.

  • An Input- record of wallet of person A
  • An Amount- the number of bitcoins person A sends to person B
  • An output- person B’s wallet

How Can You send Bitcoins?

To send the Bitcoins to anybody you require two things.

  • Bitcoin address
  • Private key

A bitcoin address is generated by an individual randomly. It mainly consists of a sequence of numbers and letters.

A private is a secret key with a unique sequence of numbers and letters.

When person A wants to send coins to person B, she signs a message with her private key to authorize the transaction. The transaction will include,

  • Input (source wallet)
  • Number of Bitcoins to sent
  • Output (person B’s address)

Person A then sends the number of Bitcoins to the Bitcoin network from her wallet. Once entered in the network, miners will then verify the transaction included in the blockchain. The miners will then solve the mathematical puzzle and in the end, it will verify that person B is the new owner of the specified number of coins.

Blockchains

Just like account ledgers containing amount and names, blockchains function almost the same. People exchange money by changing this file.

For instance, if person A sells a product to person B for $5, person A’s balance goes up by $5 and person B will have a reduced balance of $5.

There are no third parties involved in the system, like banks or other financial institutions. So, who takes control and responsibility of controlling and maintain this ledger? Every coin holder maintains their own copy of the ledger. All the participants can see each other’s ledger and their balances. In Bitcoin ledgers, these names are exchanged with specific numbers to ensure anonymity.

To keep every ledger synced and harmonized, there is a protocol that needs to be followed. To do a transaction you tell everyone by broadcasting a message with your account number, the receiver’s account number and the amount to be transferred. Every coin holder around in the world will update their ledger.

There are people who help in maintaining the system. You can simply use the system to perform the transaction without maintaining the ledger.

To ensure sender is the real owner of the account, Bitcoin requires a signature to verify it, but a mathematical signature.

System

When an account is created, a private key is generated mathematically linked to that account number. The private key and the text from the transaction are processed through a special cryptographic function to generate a signature. To make sure the signature is done by the wallet owner and to the specific transaction, another function allows the other people to verify the signature. These signatures cannot be copied as they are unique to each transaction.

The main problem with the system is that this cannot verify when a transaction was performed.

For example, if a person falsely has to withdraw 2 cheques out of an account but it has enough money to cover one account. the bank will refuse the second cheque due to an inadequate amount of cash after the with drawl of the first cheque. It is much harder to determine the order in Bitcoin. Due to the scattered individuals all over the world taking part in the transaction, there may be a delay in different orders in different places. Fraudsters could lie about these time lapses.

Two recipients might both think their transaction is first and ship a product allowing the fraudster two spent the money twice.

New transactions go into a pool of pending transactions. These transactions then get into the giant chain that locks in their order. A lottery is then held, enabling participants to choose a transaction of their choice to solve a special problem to link them to the end of the chain. The person to find the solution first wins and gets their transaction next in the chain.

That’s how pretty much all the transactions in the Bitcoin system are performed.

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15 Crypto-related Websites Get Blacklisted by French Regulatory Agency

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AMF (Autorite des Marches Financiers) is a French stock market regulator and in a press release, they recently announced that on 15th March, 15 cryptocurrency websites have been blacklisted by them.

Blacklisted Companies

15 companies were blacklisted by press release, as these companies nonstop advertised and marketed their products and services to the French public as investment opportunities, even with the new regulations. Such businesses that illegitimately offered investments in commodities such as; diamonds and other metals are also in this blacklist.

cryptocurrency websites

Press Release Statement

According to the press release;

“The investment proposals highlighting the possibility of financial returns or similar economic effects involve intermediation in miscellaneous assets and are now subject to ex-ante control by the AMF. Consequently, no offer can be directly marketed in France without prior allocation by the AMF of a registration number.”

This statement also reminds customers that high profits always include high risks so; advertising materials shouldn’t make you overlook that fact. Moreover, it suggested its customers to work hard enough before making any investment, and get knowledge about their company as much as possible. They also advised their customers to invest in a product only if they completely understand it.

Last year, Francois Villeroy de Galhau (Governor of the Bank of France), issued a warning in December and claimed that Bitcoin is a speculative asset, and there are high risks of investing in it, unlike other digital currencies. French regulators this move follows an array of apprehensive attitudes toward cryptocurrencies from the French government.

Jean-Pierre Landau’s Views

Jean-Pierre Landau is an open Bitcoin critic and in January, he was appointed by the French Minister of the Economy, to assign a task of examining cryptocurrency regulation. Landau sometimes calls Bitcoin the “tulips of modern times” referring it to Tulip Mania, as in 17th century, Europe was flounced by it.

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What is a bitcoin wallet address?

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If you’re having difficulty in understanding the difference between Bitcoin wallet and Bitcoin wallet address keep reading on to clarify your doubts.

Before we dive straight into the address bit, you need to understand what exactly a Bitcoin wallet is.

What is a bitcoin wallet address

A bitcoin “wallet” is basically a vault for your bitcoins. It contains all the information on your transaction history and balance.  It allows you to store, send and receive bitcoins.

There are two main types of wallets:

Software walletIt’s to be installed on your desktop or mobile. This wallet will be completely under your control and it is your choice what kind of software wallet you’d like to install.

Web walletIt is hosted by a third party and is usually quite user-friendly, but it is your call to trust the provider to maintain high levels of security to protect your bitcoins.

What is a bitcoin wallet address?

It is simply a unique 26-35-digit combination of letters and numbers and it looks something like this, 1ExAmpLe0FaBiTco1NADr3sSV5tsGaMF6hd

Addresses can be generated at random and free of cost by any Bitcoin user. You will use this address to receive and send bitcoins from your wallet. You are able to send bitcoins to someone, by sending it to their bitcoin address. However, for each payment request or invoice, a new bitcoin address is generated.

Your Bitcoin wallet address can also be represented as a QR code. If somebody wishes to send your Bitcoin, they can scan the code using their Bitcoin wallet and send Bitcoin to your wallet:

What is a bitcoin wallet address

Bitcoin addresses are created as part of a key generation process that creates a pair of keys. They are a matched set, where one is public and the other is private. When you “sign” a bitcoin address you are running the public and private keys through an algorithm that checks whether those keys belong together. Usually signing is talked about in the context of a message. Someone sends you a signed message and you can verify that the message came from the genuine person. You can verify the message because it was signed with their private key and you match it to their public key.

When sending bitcoins, the signed message is a portion of the bitcoin transaction and you do not explicitly see the message, it is just part of the transaction. This lets you validate the ownership of the address. The transaction was signed with the owner’s private key and you check that it’s valid using their public key. Bitcoin wallets usually contain this message signing and verification functionality.

Make sure you and only you control the private keys to your bitcoins!

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Crypto Fraud Cases: CFTC Is Stepping Up Against Market Manipulation

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Commodity Futures Trading Commission is making a quick move to declare its jurisdiction to police scam in the cryptocurrency trading. Jack B. Weinstein, a Judge of the Eastern District of New York, favoured the CFTC and affirmed its definition of cryptocurrency as a commodity. A notice of supplemental-legal-authority was given to My Big Coin Pay Inc, which is a crypto-services company that got charged with deception and misuse of funds in January.

cryptocurrency trading

This ruling was basically the outcome of a distinct crypto fraud case that CFTC is pursuing against a crypto-trading-scheme known as CabbageTech. Mentioning from that ruling, the notice directs My Big Coin Pay that;

Virtual currencies ‘fall well-within…the [Commodity Exchange Act’s] definition of commodities and the Commission has the standing to exercise its enforcement power over fraud related to virtual currencies sold in interstate commerce.”

The SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission), the IRS, and the CFTC, all have a different meaning of cryptocurrencies at this time and have selected them as securities, property, and commodities individually.

Now for My Big Coin Pay, the Commission asserts that the stable and related parties; Randall Crater and Mark Gillespie embezzled over $6 million from their clients, as well as by transferring funds of customers into their private accounts and later, spending their funds on purchasing their luxury goods and personal stuff.

cryptocurrency tradding

Many novel cases have been also filed by the CFTF in the past months, which includes three linked to virtual-currency fraud. These cases were the first ones that were brought to the commission since it allowed the launch of bitcoin commodities contracts, the past month. The notice also revealed how CFTC is working hard to establish legitimate precedent and potentially provides a vision of how it will endure regulating the industry.

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