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Are you looking out for the biggest trends in cryptocurrency? Well, Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is going to be a fine start. Today, we’re going to give you an overview on the ICO.

Initial Coin Offering

The abbreviation of ICO is “Initial Coin Offering” and since 2013, ICOs are frequently used for evolving new cryptocurrencies. When we talk about ICOs, this also means individuals offering investors some units of crypto-token or new cryptocurrency in exchange, contrary to major cryptocurrencies such as; Bitcoin and Ethereum. If there’s a demand for pre-created tokens, then they can be easily traded and sold in all cryptocurrency exchanges.

ICO token could become the shares and securities of tomorrow and with the success of Ethereum, more and more ICOs are being used for funding the crypto project development. ICO has become a tool that doesn’t only reform the currency, but also the entire financial system.

initial coin offering

History of ICOs

At the beginning of 2013, around 100 billion XRP tokens were created in the Ripple Labs, as the first cryptocurrency distributed by an ICO was Ripple. The main reason why the company sold these tokens was to fund the development of the Ripple platform.

A layer on top of Bitcoin was promised to be created by Mastercoin, for tokenizing Bitcoin transactions and executing smart contracts. Almost $1 million was received by the developer against the top-cryptocurrency Bitcoin.

ICO has funded numerous other cryptocurrencies like; Lisk, which sold around $5 million coins at the beginning of 2016. The Ethereum Foundation sold ETH against 0.0005 Bitcoin in the mid-2014 respectively. By doing so, around 20 million was received, and it became one of the largest crowdfunding, and now, it serves as the capital base for Ethereum development.

 

A simple token, which can be transacted on the on the blockchain of Ethereum is one of the simplest applications of Ethereum’s smart contract system and this type of contract was standardized with ERC#20. This is something that made Ethereum host of such an extensive scope of ICO that now you can say that Ethereum has finally found its Killer App.

Legitimacy

The token is sold as a digital good, not as a financial asset and this is why it’s sometimes called “crowd-sale”. The legal state of ICO is undefined and in this case, the funding with an ICO is not regulated, making it quite simple and paperless.

ICO – Fundraising Future

The DAO is amongst the most prominent demonstration of Ethereum’s smart contracts. Ether, worth $100 million, fueled the distributed investment company. The idea of funding projects with a token on Ethereum turned out to be a highly successful generation of crowdfunding projects. You’d know that investing in token on top of Ethereum is very easy especially, if you’ve already tried it out. Just transfer ETH and paste the contract in your wallet. You’ll be able to see the token in your account and then you can easily transfer it as you want.

ICOs could be used for completely reconstructing the financial system of securities, shares, and decentralizing, not just money, but trade and stock creation as well.

Do you want to assess Ethereum’s market capitalization? Do not only look at the market cap of Ether but also on the token’s value.

Is it Profitable?

ICO has been a blessing for many investors but, on the other hand, many ICO ends with losses. Many scammers and semi-scammers have used ICO for; promising the greatest cryptocurrency ever or building a sleek website. In addition to that, the successful and largest ICOs, like Iconomi, Melonpost, Lisk, Melonpost, and Augur collected funds and delivered literally nothing.

Let’s find out what’s happening in the market for ICO.

Mastercoin

Building a layer on top of Bitcoin was announced by Mastercoin in 2013, and Mastercoin-token were sold to investors. Around 10,000 Bitcoin was received by the developers and had the worth of $1 million at that time. Some investors made hefty profits and later, Mastercoin merged with Omni and Counterparty.

Ethereum

One of the largest ICOs has been made by Ethereum yet, with a pre-sale of almost 60 million ETH and around 31,500 Bitcoin were raised by the Ethereum Foundation. ETH-presale investors also profited immensely.

Ripple

100 billion XRP-tokens were created in Ripple Labs and serve as an anti-spam mechanism in the Ripple payment network. Ripple Labs are selling XRP but their value doesn’t move in a clear direction. It started with almost 5,000 Satoshi, felt below 1,000 Satoshi, then raised above 7,000.

Next

In 2013, a new gen-cryptocurrency made, Next. Around 1 billion tokens were sold to early investors and the developers only got a double digit’s amount of Bitcoins with the ICO. However, today the NXT token is valued much more and NXT has become a successful and firm cryptocurrency relatively.

Lisk

Lisk enables smart contracts on sidechains and is a JavaScript written Blockchain, based on BitShares. Around $5 million was received by Lisk, by selling the coins for Bitcoins.

Ethereum token ICO:

First Blood

An Asian platform for decentralized Sportsbet completed the ICO of its token within few seconds and many of them have been purchased by a Chinese exchange.

Golem

The aim of Golem project is to create a decentralized supercomputer, through which applicants can earn money by selling its power. The ICO was limited to 820,000,000 tokens, and more than 10,000 BTC were received by the developers. Today, the Golem market share is beyond 50,000 BTC.

Augur

The decentralized prediction market uses REP-token to choose the outcome of events in which 80% of these tokens have been sold for funding the development and got around $5 million. Today all these tokens are worth more than $100 million.

ICONOMI

Well, Iconomi is a platform for managing the virtual assets and the ICN token is like shares on the platform. 85,000,000 tokens were sold by the developers and more than 17,000 BTC were received for it. Today, it has a market cap of almost 40,000 BTC.

SingularDTV

SingularDTV with the ICO raised more than 12,000 BTC and today, tokens as a whole are worth about 40,000 BTC.

The above ICO tokens can be easily purchased and traded on exchanges but some extra ICOs have just completed some time ago and are now preparing to release the newly created token on the Ethereum Blockchain.

This is the following projects:

Melonport

Melonport’s aim is to advance a platform for managing the blockchain assets made on Ethereum. The MLN token that the developers sold were around more than 2,000 BTC.

Dfinity

Dfinity aims to build a decentralized platform for cloud computing and has raised more than 3,000 Bitcoin in its ICO.

Qtum

The main aim of this project is to build a platform for the easy formation and blockchain based smart contracts and could raise more than 14,000 Bitcoin in an ICO for this mission.

Today’s ICOs

You can currently invest in ICOs like:

 

  • Humaniq (a wallet for the unbanked)
  • Aeternity (“scalable smart contracts interfacing with real-world data”)
  • Internet of Coins (a distributed environment for several blockchains)
  • Cosmos (similar: “a network of distributed ledgers”)

 

ICO Blockchain Capital allows everybody to contribute to its investment rounds. But, not every ICO is worth your money.

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One thought on “How ICO (Initial Coin Offering) is Raising Millions in Seconds?

  1. That is a great tip especially to those new to the blogosphere.
    Simple but very precise information… Thanks for sharing this one.

    A must read article!

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Cryptocurrency Security – Here’s All About Its Three Layers!

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So, what’s a decentralized system? In simple words, we can say that a decentralized system works with no servers and each member is permissible to execute transactions. But in the case of the blockchain, each member must have to do some system-tasks as well, such as; storing transactional data.

cryptocurrency Security

Fork: Even a group of members can run an alternate-version of reality, which is called “fork.” The fork works by the similar regulations as the original decentralized system – though it might have a diverse state.

Let’s enlighten you about the hierarchical nature of cryptocurrency security!

First Layer – Tokens and Crypto Coins

  • One of the first and foremost thing in the crypto world is your cryptocurrency security.
  • Whenever you choose a cryptocurrency, you take all the perils and risks related to the protocol.
  • If someone can recognize and utilize protocol flaws, they can compromise the whole network, even including you; it won’t be much important which exchange/wallet you are using.

In the first layer, you can find two different types of currencies which include, the coins (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash etc.) and all ICO-issued tokens such as; MOBI or EOS.

What is the Difference?

Well, the difference is in the technical features. Each coin is either an independent network protocol or just a copy of some of it. When you research a crypto protocol from a security stance, make sure to find out if it can be centralized.

Let’s take an example!

In the case of Bitcoin, it’s now centralized around four major mining pools which also means that if all of them collaborate, they can possibly compromise the whole network.

Another advice! Whenever you look for proof-of-stake crypto, make sure to have a look at the genesis. This is also quite imperative, as whoever keeps the preliminary and initial stake can vote for transitions, as well as the network will be also trusting those who have higher stakes. If we take an example of NEO, a PoS network of China, which is same as Ethereum, was distributed 50/50 amid its ICO sales and developer community – unlike Ethereum distribution. Also, the NEO token distribution makes sure that no major stakeholder from the exchange platform or the developing side has enough stake to compromise the whole network.

Tokens

  • Now if we talk about tokens, all of them are based on a smart-contract aspect of few of the coins, which means their reliability and security is first based on the parent cryptocurrency – only subsequently on the smart contract’s code that issued it.
  • Mostly, all ICO coins (tokens) are based on Ethereum and just some of them are issued by smart contracts.
  • Also, it is imperative to point out that Ethereum got hacked a few years ago due to the DAO protocol hack – later hard forked and rolled back to the state. This also shows that the founders of Ethereum probably have a time machine as it looks like they have the ability to go back in time – yet again if it’s required.

Second Layer – Exchanges

One thing that everyone must understand about the exchanges is that they are written in custom-code with infrastructure security and has got nothing to do with blockchain. If we talk about an exchange, it is just a standard centralized web service arrayed in a data centre. That’s why whenever we talk about the exchanges, we always mention reliability and trust.

Almost every month we hear news about the data breaches and security events that occur because of exchanges.

Examples

Here are some latest examples!

  1. Back in December 2017, $63 million in cryptocurrency was stolen from NiceHash by hackers.
  2. At the beginning of this year, January 2018, more than $500 million in cryptocurrency was stolen from Coincheck by hackers.
  3. In February 2018, almost $195 million in cryptocurrency was stolen from BitGrail by hackers.

The hype around cryptocurrencies is due to the number of data breaches. Many exchanges have recently started their business – without investing in proper security measures. Simultaneously, if someone steals tokens/crypto coins from an exchange successfully, it’s nearly impossible to do anything about recovering it.

Third Layer – Wallets

Well, the third layer is linked to your personal security in the crypto world and you must’ve heard a lot about it before.

When you select a wallet for cryptocurrencies, you’ll have two options:

  1. Hot Wallet
  2. Cold Wallet

Hot wallet Vs Cold Wallet

  • The hot wallet is just like an account in exchange or in simple words, it is a website-based wallet.
  • In the case of a hot wallet, your tokens/coins are under the control of your wallet provider.

Whereas, a cold wallet can be a hardware, software or just a paper.

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Bitcoin could hit $500,000 by 2030

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Now a day, bitcoin is at the top of the cryptocurrency’s list. Accordingly, bitcoin gained fame only in 9 years, read on to find out more about what bitcoin is worth today.

According to the first investor in Snapchat Jeremy Liew and Peter Smith co-founder of the blockchain, Bitcoin is not going to leave its strength. They estimated that the Bitcoin will hit $500,000 by the year of 2030.

Bitcoin-based settlement

All the settlements of the bitcoin move from country to country. World Bank shows the gross product data of last 15 years is 0.76%. Foreigner sends money back to their home. According to the Peter and Liew’s reviews, they found the expensive alternative in form of the Bitcoin. In that scenario, we can say that with the awareness of the bitcoin, its percentage of the settlement also increases day by day.

Uncertainty  

According to the both, bitcoin popularity increases in US, UK and in developing countries. They said, at the consuming and investment level, bitcoin liquidity, its uncertainty, easy ways of transfer making it more flexible and impressive. This is the huge possibility that bitcoin’s market outperformance will make the bitcoin a strong competitor.

Mobile saturation

Peter and Liew said that next years will the time of smartphones. Because noncash transactions will move from 15% to 30%. right now, penetration of the smartphone is 63% which may increase to 78% (63+15), or 93% (63+30). And, this is the expectation that users of the mobile will expand to 1 billion by 2020. GSMA reported that 90% users of this technology are from developing countries. In addition, this makes the easy approach to everything. Everyone has the bank in his pocket, which provide an enhancement to the bitcoin. Accordingly, 50% of the all noncash transactions could be accounted by the bitcoin.

Basic model drivers are as follow;

  • bitcoin price in 2017 is $2809.77
  • bitcoin supply by 2030 will be 20 million
  • 2030’s value and the user of the bitcoin will up to $500,000 and 400 million. Whereas, a value is calculated by taking $10 million market cap and dividing it by 20 million bitcoins (amount of fixed supply of Bitcoin).
  • Market cap of Bitcoin 2030 year is calculated by multiplying the number of the bitcoin holder with its average value.
  • market cap of the bitcoin is $16.4 billion, means each user contain $2,515 worth of bitcoin. Accordingly, it will be increased to the $ 25,000.
  • Bitcoin users increase from 120,000 to 6.5 million in 2017. It could be the beginning, means growth would be 400 million in 2030.

Smith and Liew views

These above are the rough estimation for the year of 2030. Now a day, China plays and important role in bitcoin technology. which means bitcoin is nearly 100% responsible for trading in bitcoin. However, three well-reputed exchanges announce the fee of 0.2% fee on each transaction.

According to the Smith, Bitcoin is at its beginning stage. He says, “The SEC’s ruling wasn’t a surprise to us,”. In addition, he gets that sort of approval. He includes, bitcoin is too much easy to use, whether it is buying or selling process. And, also getting mature in assets sense. We will examine the development of the bitcoin.

Countries are still at the strife stage. As bitcoin didn’t get regulatory approval in the US. Whereas, in Japan, cryptocurrency is legal payment.

Goodluck!

 

Tags: bitcoin settlement

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What Are Onion Sites And How To Access Them?

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Onion are the sites only reachable via Tor browser. These sites are often referred as darknet sites and can’t be accessed using mainstream search engines such Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc.

How To Access .Onion Sites?

Accessing these sites is very simple and straightforward. All you need is to have Tor browser installed on your device and follow a few simple steps to unlock the world of these secret websites.
For those of you who are not familiar with the process of accessing these sites, we have created a simple tutorial to provide help on the subject so they can access the deep web.

Step 1:

Download Tor browser from the official website which is: https://www.torproject.org/download/download.html.en
Make sure the website you make the download from looks like this:

Step 2:

Once downloaded, begin the installation:

Related: How to use Tor browser on iPhone?

Step 3:

Start the Tor browser, it will connect to the network (if it asks for confirmation, click ok):

Related: What Are Top 5 Proxies To Access .Onion Sites Without Tor Browser?

Step 4:

After the browser starts, you will see a confirmation screen indicating that browser is running and everything is ok, the screen will look like this:

Step 5:

Once you see the above screen, you are all set to go. Now the only thing you need to access an onion site is entering .onion URL into Tor’s address bar:

Related: A beginner’s guide to Tor Browser

Precautions:

• Use an updated version of Tor
• Make sure that JavaScript is disabled in the browser
• Use anonymous VPNs for enhanced privacy
Enjoy you deep web experience!

Image/content credits: deepdotweb.com

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The blockchain immutability myth

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The blockchain immutability myth

Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.

So, the theory goes. Because

Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”

Two prominent examples are,

  1. Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
  2. According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.

Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,

Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,

Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?

Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.

Brief discussion on Blockchain  

A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.

Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;

1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.

2. it is completely a digital structure

3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.

With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.

Validation Process

Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.

Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks.   This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.

Authentication and testing

Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.

Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.

Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.

Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.

That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.

 

 

The blockchain immutability myth

Public chain’s mutability

Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.

Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.

Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in

Immutability of blockchain

Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.

To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.

Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.

Rewriteable private chains

Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.

Immutability is nuanced

People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.

Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.

Good luck!

 

 

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