Immutability…. We use this word in daily routine to signify a thing, which can never change. Whereas, in the blockchain, this word is referring to the worldwide transactions. Which is adjust by the participants. Here, the basic approach is, once the block blockchain transactions are complete, it cannot replace or reverse by other transactions.
So, the theory goes. Because
Saint Augustine states, “The highest good, than which there is no higher, is the blockchain. And consequently it is immutably good, hence truly eternal and truly immortal.”
Two prominent examples are,
- Under certain conditions, through some necessary adjustment transactions, history can change itself. Here, the question is arises, it easy to bring new changes in the content of the blockchain? Is it really easy?
- According to cryptocurrency advocates, immutability achieves only in case of decentralization of economic mechanism. Which is not proper fall at the private sector of the blockchain. Because, they totally depend on the collective behavior of a known group of validators, who are not trustworthy.
Above two circumstances are totally wrong. Because in blockchain there is no immutability thing exist. The proper question is,
Under which circumstance the blockchain will or will not change? And,
Do those conditions match with the problem, we are trying to solve?
Instead, the chain’s behavior depends on the network of a computer system. Before we get into the detail of how we ‘ll summarize the basics of blockchain first.
Brief discussion on Blockchain
A blockchain system is running onto the different set of nodes. Which may be in control of different companies. There is no individual node who control the others. While nodes are connecting with each other through a proper network. These nodes generate and propagate transactions and rapidly spread to other nodes via digital operations in some kind of database.
Every new upcoming transaction is verified by an independent node. Following are some terms of verification;
1.it is totally in obedience of blockchain rule and regulations.
2. it is completely a digital structure
3. If any transaction passes the test of nodes. It will enter to the local list of not confirm transactions means directly in the memory pool. While others will enter in the orphan pool. In addition, pass transactions will be forward to its peers.
With some intervals, a node which contains the set of as-yet unconfirmed transactions on the network generates a new block. Each block contains the hash (32-byt). Therefore, by creating a little block chain, each block includes the timestamp. Accordingly, link to the previous block via its hash.
Blocks move and verified by nodes across the network like transactions. For the acceptance by the nodes, a block must contain proper transactions including no conflict with other ones. Whereas, with the confirmation of the test, it is entering into the local blockchain and transactions are confirm. Any transaction which conflict with others will discard immediately. Whether they are in memory pool or orphan pool.
Participation of the chain, make the strategy to ensure the generation of blocks. This ensures indicates that any kind of node. whether it is an individual or a group has no ability to take hold of the blockchain’s content.
Authentication and testing
Proof-of-work a public blockchain allow its users to generate block who has the ability to solve the tricky and fiendishly mathematical puzzle. Whereas, to prevent minority control in private blockchains, blocks are signed by authorized members. In order to create a lawful chain, a product needs to legalize validator by using mining diversity.
Two different validator nodes can generate conflicting blocks when both have the same previous points. However, fork happens. While different blocks are seen by nodes and leading them to have the different opinion about the chain’s history. These forks are resolved on the arrival of new blocks on branches by a blockchain software.
Shorter branch’s node spool back its last block and replay these two blocks on the longer one. Unfortunately, if you are unlucky and both branches will extend. Then the conflict will be resolved by the third and so on. In addition, with the increase in fork’s length, the probability of a fork persisting drops increases. After a small number of the blocks, it can be reduced to zero in private blockchain.
Here, the most important thing to remember is, each node is controlled by a particular person. Where blockchain has not authority to ask some changes in transactions. The main purpose of the chain is to help in sync. But, if participants want to change the rule, no one has authority to stop them.
That is why we need to stop asking about the immutability of blockchain. Because the answer is “no”. Arguably, we consider the conditions under which it needs changes.
Public chain’s mutability
Let’s start with the above mention two examples. We will take the start with the claim that authorization process. Which used in blockchain cannot bring true immutability by public chains. e.g.
Ethereum blockchain faces a devastating situation in June 2016. “the DAO”, loophole found by someone. In which, $250 million were invested and start draining its speed. Which distract the both investor and creator’s intentions. After few days, the ethereum software updated to prevent from hackers. It was publicly supported by Vitalik Buterin that ethereum users will control their own computer system. As a result, a large number of users, blockchain comes with the new name and rules is ethereum. Whereas, minority reject this idea and keep going with ethereum classic. There were more choices for names like ethereum compromise or ethereum pure. Whatever, democracy is the democracy, and everyone has their own rights voice. In addition, ethereum is ten times more than ethereum classic.
Now, we will take a common way, in which blockchain’s immutability will be dilute. Recall that mining of bitcoin and ethereum uses proof of work scheme. Where you get a reward for solving a tricky puzzle. In addition, this reward increases the potential of the users and they solve the relating issues more efficiently. Network continually adjust the rate of block creation. In addition, 10 minutes in bitcoin or 15 seconds in
Immutability of blockchain
Bitcoin has faced the factor difficulty of 350,000x from last 5 years. Today, bitcoin mining is on hardware devices with cheap electricity and in cold weather. Antminer S9 mines the block 10,000 faster than a desktop system. Which burns 10 times more electricity than a system with cost $1089.
To undermine the immutability of bitcoin blockchain, you need to install more mining capacity, then the other network creating 51% attack first. Secondly, through proper testing and approval, mine your own secret branches. Finally, at desired time, release your secret branch to the network anonymously. Then, the whole process of a transaction will be without any scams or hacking issue. It is not easy to install a huge program. It needs a lot of money and electricity as well. And a common man or country who has the shortage of both. Unfortunately, are not able to adopt this way for immutability of bitcoin blockchain.
Let’s estimate the cost of a 51% attack which reverses a year of bitcoin transactions. At the current bitcoin price of $1500 and reward of 15 bitcoins (including transaction fees) per 10-minute block. Miners earn around $1.2 billion per year ($1500 × 15 × 6 × 24 × 365). Reasonably, they are not losing money. So, the total expense should be in the same range.
Rewriteable private chains
Now, let’s have a ride to private blockchains. Which was established for the needs of government and well-reputed organizations. According to the organization’s perspective, immutability is the commercial, legal and regulatory non-starter. Because it allows attacking the network anonymously. whereas, immutability can also be ashore in good behavior of other institutions. With whom, they have authority to sue or sign a contract. It is a bonus because private blockchains are less costly to run. Since blocks need just a node’s approval and digital signature. When a number of validators follow the rules. As a result, you get cheaper and stronger immutability than other digital currencies offer. Furthermore, the percentage of immutability may decrease when participants in chain decide to do so together.
Immutability is nuanced
People who don’t like the traditional banking system and government’s currency are perfect to use proof of work blockchain. Whose immutability rely on economic terms instead of participants. It may be an expensive operation. when parties agree to live with government or wealthy actors and bringing down the network. Accordingly, they believe that cryptocurrency technology and its value continue to grow and it will get more secure.
Finally, for most permission blockchain use cases. We probably don’t want validator nodes to be able to easily and cheaply substitute old blocks in the chain. As Dave Birch says “the way to correct a wrong debit is with a correct credit”. Rather than pretending that the debit never took place. Nonetheless, for those cases where we do need the extra flexibility, chameleon hashes help make blockchains a practical choice.
How To Mine Litecoin:
Litecoin is a digital currency just like Bitcoin. However, it has different algorithms to process, known as “Scrypt.” Initially, people were used to mining litecoin with home computers. But now, a dedicating mining machine ASICs has the ability to process scrypt coins such as Litecoin, making it difficult to enter without a huge investment. if you are trying individually, then breakeven will be reached after a long time. Whereas, when you join a mining pool you get returns almost immediately.
What Are The Basics Of Cryptocurrency Mining:
Traditional money’s aim is to increase the amount of cash in exchange. digital currency such as Litecoin is produced by solving difficult algorithms. When algorithms’ blocks are ended being treated, additional currency is released into the market. Usually, miner’s reward finishes the blocks.
- As the currency mined in a large amount, algorithms process is getting more difficult. This is an intentional step to prevent immediate mining of the currencies.
- Mining pools were created to provide a handsome return in short time period. When a block is finished by any member of the pool, all member will get the reward equally. If you are in the individual mining process, you might get less reward.
Different Alternatives To The Mining:
24/7 electricity is required to mining process of any cryptocurrency. It’s like, you are willing to drop your investment on the enthusiastic mining machine. If you are using house computer for mining, it may supersede the value anything you mine. In addition, continuous running put a serious pressure on your hardware components.
- Cryptocurrencies have a fundamental principle is litecoin mining is going to upsurge the difficulty level. Means, it will too much difficulty to mine at a profit unless the value of the currency gets an enhancement.
- If you are mining litecoin to use it as a hypothetical venture or as an alternative payment. It’s better to buy them all together.
You need a computer with two graphics cards for litecoin mining known as a rig. Ideally, you will get four or five graphics cards for your setup. You can shop them online or build it on your own. In addition, you will require two basics things
- System RAM as graphics card RAM
- You need dedicated cooling for your mining setup to your component alive
An ASIC scrypt miner:
These enthusiastic mining machines increase the mining power. But they may be expensive for others. The good news is, these mining machines are also available in low-power models, letting you save electricity.
- One of the best benefits of the scrypt miner is you have the power to change it mine more lucrative coin as long it is scrypt-base like Litecoin.
- For a low power miner, you have the option to get a USB ASIC miner and connect it to Raspberry Pi.
- Try it to shop them online
Estimate whether mining is going to be worth it?
Once you decided the equipment, conclude that what you have to do now? What are the market trends and how much mining you need to do? Power, electricity and internet bills will also include in this decided plan. If your performance is same at mining, it’s better to buy coins.
Get a Bitcoin wallet:
You need a wallet to store Litecoin. You can download them from the official website also for mobile devices.
Join the mining pool:
A large number of mining pools are waiting for the newbies with heavy investment. you need to join cryptocurrency mining pool and enjoy the reward. One thing you need to make sure that your wallet is connected your account. So that you can collect your wages.
A worker in a pool:
The worker is a system followed by the mining pool in which work is assigned to you and the whole effort is representing while you’re mining.
- Mining pool automatically creates the first worker at the time of the registration.
- If you have multiple mining rigs you need an additional worker. Otherwise, most of the miner don’t need more than one worker. Naturally, you are allocating a single worker to each mining equipment you have, which allows you to track competence.
Download mining program:
There are few mining programs are offered by the companies in the market, depending on your requirements. Few examples are, CGminer, cudaMiner, cpuminer.
Configure your mining program:
Mining programs have different configuration process. You need to check your mining connection details, stratum, port number and worker information as well. your mining pool should have complete instructions.
- Extract CGminer such as “C:\CGminer”
- Press “⊞Win+R” and type “cmd” to open the command prompt.
- To scan your graphic cards type “cgminer.exe -n”
- Use your mining pool information, start “c:\cgminer” –scrypt -o STRATUM: PORT-u WORKER -pPASSWORD”
- Save your file as “bat” file
You can easily start the mining after configuring and connecting with the mining pool. The command window will show the complete details of your mining. You will also receive the information and market trend from other miners.
- Do not run another program while your system in working on mining. Otherwise, it will hurt your mining efficiency.
Monitor hardware system:
Make sure that your system is saved from overheating, which can destroy the whole setup.
- If your system is running 24/7, it will provide you best result.
If your coin’s cost is equal to your lightcoin mining process’ cost than sell this equipment and recover your potential loss.
Google is taking an action against the online advertisements related to cryptocurrencies at the beginning of June.
The company is upgrading its Financial Services Policy to restrain crypto advertisement, including wallets, trading advice and initial coin offerings (ICOs). This means that companies with legal cryptocurrency offerings won’t be permitted to serve ads through any of Google’s advertisement products, which place advertising on its own sites as well as third-party websites.
In another post, Google said that it took down 3.2 billion ads that violated its advertising policies in 2017, nearly double of the ads that it removed, back in 2016.
Facebook took the same step in January, the move affected most of the Google’s advertised products, which means organizations won’t have the ability to serve crypto advertisement on the search engine giant’s own sites, as well as third-party sites in its network.
Google’s director of supportable ads, Scott Spencer, told CNBC
“We don’t have a crystal ball to know where the future is going to go with cryptocurrencies, but we’ve seen enough consumer harm or potential for consumer harm that it’s an area that we want to approach with extreme caution.”
The company also said that the policy will be executed across its platforms, including Facebook, Audience Network and Instagram. In the beginning of this year, Facebook banned crypto-related advertisements, mentioning the potential for “deceptive promotional practices.” It’s been reported that the crypto advertisements have also been vanishing from the social media sites of China as there’s a ban on ICOs and crypto exchanges in China.
According to Fintech Finance reports, Smart Package, which is an application of US trade giant Walmart, has been released by the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) on 1st March. Smart Package patents employ a tool, based on blockchain to track down the location, environmental conditions, package contents, and other details. The main purpose of such blockchain applications is to be used in the latest technologies like unmanned drones etc.
Such blockchain applications help in recording the main addresses like; seller private key address, a buyer private key address and a courier private key address. According to this application, the current tracking instruments don’t offer such coveted functionality yet. Fintech Finance also reported that Smart Package application was first filed by Walmart in August 2017. This application isn’t the first one, in which Walmart has utilized Blockchain technology because, Walmart merged with IBM, back in 2016.
UPS, which is a US shipping company joined BiTA in November 2017 because, blockchain technology is quite popular among delivery and shipping companies. Publication of a non-conditional patent application occurred almost 18 months before its initial precedence date in the US. Once it’s published, USPTO can use a patent application to reject the third-party patent applications for the correlated technology.